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Peak Issues (Issue 3): Clinical Use Of Incretin-Based Therapies To Treat Type 2 Diabetes
[GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: Strategies for PPG Control]


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CME/CE Information


Several landmark clinical studies have demonstrated the relationship between type 2 diabetes and increased risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control can decrease the development of microvascular diseases such as retinopathy and nephropathy, and results from these trials provide the central rationale for current glycemic targets in diabetic patients. Unfortunately, recent estimates indicate that only 57% of type 2 diabetes patients reach the American Diabetes Association glycemic target of hemoglobin A1C (A1C) < 7%. It is now clear that both fasting and postprandial glucose control contribute to A1C, and reaching glycemic targets may require attention to both components in any given patient. There is now a spectrum of medications that can be used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes, some of which have disproportionate effects on fasting or postprandial plasma glucose (PPG). The ability to apply specific therapies to optimize glucose control in individual patients requires familiarity with drugs that control fasting and postprandial glucose. This publication series will explore the science of PPG and its contribution to glycemic control, and highlight recent and emerging therapies that address this important target.


This program is intended for endocrinologists, diabetologists, and other healthcare professionals (HCPs) who frequently treat patients with type 2 diabetes.


Upon completion of this activity, the participant should be able to:
  • List the mechanisms of action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, paying specific attention to how they affect PPG levels
  • Discuss the clinical efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
  • Describe the safety profile of GLP-1 receptor agonist therapies
  • Explain how GLP-1 receptor agonists can be incorporated into the treatment algorithm for type 2 diabetes


The Institute for Medical and Nursing Education, Inc (IMNE) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education (CME) for physicians. IMNE designates this educational activity for a maximum of 2.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.


In compliance with the ACCME’s Standards for Commercial Support, it is the policy of IMNE to ensure fair balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all programming. All individuals involved in planning (eg, CME provider staff, faculty, and planners) are expected to disclose any significant financial relationships with commercial interests over the past 12 months. IMNE also requires that faculty identify and reference off-label or investigational use of pharmaceutical agents and medical devices.

In accordance with ACCME Standards for Commercial Support, parallel documents from other accrediting bodies, and IMNE policy, identification and resolution of conflict of interest have been made in the form of external peer review of educational content. The following disclosures have been made:

David D’Alessio, MD
Research Activities: Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc;
Eli Lilly and Company;
Johnson & Johnson.
Consultant: Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc; MannKind Corporation;
Merck & Co, Inc; Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, Inc; Wyeth;
sanofi-aventis; Novo Nordisk.

CME and Educational Partner Staff
Steve Weinman, RN
Executive Director
Disclosures: Nothing to disclose

Sheryl Torr-Brown, PhD
Scientific Director
Disclosures: Nothing to disclose.

Robin Devine, DO
Medical Writer
Disclosures: Nothing to disclose.

Amy Groves
Director of Program Development
Disclosures: Nothing to disclose

Betsey King
Associate Director of Program Development
Disclosures: Nothing to disclose

Robert Hash, MD
Texas A&M Health Science Center
College of Medicine
College Station, Texas
Dr Hash has nothing to disclose

Martin Quan, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California
Dr Quan has nothing to disclose


This activity is designed for HCPs for educational purposes. Information and opinions offered by the faculty/presenters represent their own viewpoints. Conclusions drawn by the participants should be derived from careful consideration of all available scientific information. While IMNE makes every effort to have accurate information presented, no warranty, expressed or implied, is offered. The participant should use his/her clinical judgment, knowledge, experience, and diagnostic decision-making before applying any information, whether provided here or by others, for any professional use.


This activity is partially supported by an educational grant from Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, Inc.


CME credit/verification is offered upon successful completion of a posttest with a minimum passing score of 70%. CME certificates will be issued to participants after receipt of the CME registration form, evaluation form, and successfully completed posttest. For those taking the test and completing the evaluation online at www.webbasedCME. com, a printable certificate will be made available upon successful completion of the posttest.

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